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Glossary

 

Absolute Emission The emission in a year expressed in quantity of CO2 per year (t CO2 per year) 
AFR Alternative fuels and raw materials used to displace fossil fuel use in clinker production
Alternative Fuel A material sourced from  waste and by-products of other industries and the community
Alternative Raw Material Waste or by-product material used as raw feed to the cement manufacturing process - thus reducing the amount of natural resources such as limestone
Blast Furnace Slag A by-product of iron and steel manufacturing. In Australia, granulated blast furnace slag is used as an alternative cementitious material and air-cooled blast furnace slag is used as an aggregate. 
Bypass Dust Discarded dust from the bypass system de-dusting unit of the suspension pre-heater, pre-calciner and grate pre-heater kilns. The dust is fully calcined kiln feed material.
Calorific Value The heating potential of fuel. 
Carbon Dust Carbon dust is used by cement kilns as an alternative fuel. It is a by-product of aluminium smelting and consists primarily of petroleum coke fines, aluminium, sodium and fluoride.
Cement A calcium alumina silicate with hydraulic properties that enable it to act as a binder. It is a key ingredient in concrete.
Cementitious Material Materials that have similar properties to cement and that can be used to supplement for clinker or cement, for example slags and fly ash.
CKD Cement Kiln Dust. Dust extracted from long-dry and wet-kiln system de-ducting units, typically made up of partially calcined kiln feed material.
Clinker The artificial calcium silicate rock formed during the heating of raw materials in a cement kiln. Clinker is ground with other materials such as gypsum to form cement. 
Concrete A combination of cement, sand, water and aggregate that bind together to form a material with high compressive strength. 
Demolition Timber Used timber from construction and/or demolition projects. The cement industry is able to utilise this material as an alternative fuel source. 
Direct Emissions  Emissions from sources that are owned or operated by the reporting entity. 
Dry Process A modern kiln technology that accepts the raw material as a fine, dry powder ready for calcining and clinkerisation. 
Fly Ash  Fly ash is a by-product of the combustion of pulverized coal in power generation plants. This material is used as both as an alternative raw material to form clinker, as well as an addition to clinker during the grinding process.
GHG  Greenhouse gas - typically referring to carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), fluorocarbons (PFCs/HFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)